Personal Fabrication Research in HCI and Graphics:
An Overview of Related Work

Webpage maintained by Stefanie Mueller, and Parinya Punpongsanon, HCI Engineering Group , MIT CSAIL
For feedback and changes, please email: stefanie.mueller/at/

The goal of this website is to provide a resource for newcomers in the field of computational fabrication so that they can quickly access recent contributions made in the field. This webpage serves as a related work directory - the creators of this webpage do not hold the rights for these works, please contact the authors directly.

Personal Fabrication
Patrick Baudisch and Stefanie Mueller.
In this journal paper, we survey the related work in HCI and Computer Graphics over the last five years and provide a roadmap for future research. The question we try to answer is whether the technology will further progress towards consumers, which would allow the technology to scale from hundreds of thousands of users to hundreds of millions of users. Our analysis reveals that a transition to consumers first requires a hardware + software system that embodies the skills and expert knowledge that consumers lack [...]


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Understanding Uncertainty in Measurement and Accommodating its Impact in 3D Modeling and Printing (ACM DIS 2017)
Jeeeun Kim, Anhong Guo, Tom Yeh, Scott E. Hudson, and Jennifer Mankoff
We demonstrate that measurement errors are a significant (yet often overlooked) challenge for end users through a systematic study of the sources and types of measurement errors. We argue for a new design principle--accommodating measurement error--that designers, as well as novice modelers, should to use at design time. We offer two strategies--buffer insertion and replacement of minimal parts--to help designers, as well as novice modelers, to build models that are robust to measurement error. We argue that these strategies can reduce the need for and costs of iteration and demonstrate their use in a series of printed objects. [...]

AnimSkin: Fabricating Epidermis with Interactive, Functional and Aesthetic Color Animation (ACM DIS 2017)
Yanan Wang, Shijian Luo, Yujia Lu, Hebo Gong, Yexing Zhou, Shuai Liu, and Preben Hansen
ndividuals could also customize aesthetic graphic designs by following the detailed fabrication process to achieve personalized patterns. We propose four different dynamic types of color animation by applying certain voltage to the heating circuitry. With two examples, Email Reminder and Light Control System, we demonstrate how AnimSkin can be integrated into everyday life, and specifically, we show how AnimSkin can benefit areas such as on-skin design, thin-film interface and beauty technology. [...]

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Computing interior support-free structure via hollow-to-fill construction (COMPUTER AND GRAPHICS 2017)
Yang Yang, Shuangming Chai, Xiao-Ming Fu
Given a voxelized model and the optimization goal, we first hollow out the model until it becomes a shell, whose thickness is determined by the physical material properties, and then add the support-free structures to optimize the inner surface, and finally refine the inner surface from bottom to top to minimize the optimization objective while maintaining the support-free property. Furthermore, shape deformation and extra weights are also utilized to optimize the shape for design goals. [...]

Personalized food printing for portrait images (COMPUTER AND GRAPHICS 2017)
Haiming Zhao, Jufeng Wang, Xiaoyu Ren, Jingyuan Li, Yong-Liang Yang, Xiaogang Jin
Our framework automatically converts an arbitrary input image into an optimized printable path to facilitate food printing, while preserving the prominent features of the image. This is achieved based on two key stages. First, we apply image abstraction techniques to extract salient image features. Robust face detection and sketch synthesis are optionally involved to enhance face features for portrait images. [...]

String Actuated Curved Folded Surfaces (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Martin Kilian, Aron Monszpart, and Niloy J. Mitra.
We introduce string actuated curved folded surfaces that can be shaped by pulling a network of strings, thus, vastly simplifying the process of creating such surfaces and making the folding motion an integral part of the design. Technically, we solve the problem of which surface points to string together and how to actuate them by locally expressing a desired folding path in the space of isometric shape deformations in terms of novel string actuation modes. [...]

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Design and volume optimization of space structures (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Caigui Jiang, Chengcheng Tang, Hans-Peter Seidel, and Peter Wonka.
We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. [...]

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Interactive design of animated plushies (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
James M. Bern, Kai-Hung Chang, and Stelian Coros.
We present a computational approach to creating animated plushies, soft robotic plush toys specifically-designed to reenact user-authored motions. Our design process is inspired by muscular hydrostat structures, which drive highly versatile motions in many biological systems. We begin by instrumenting simulated plush toys with a large number of small, independently-actuated, virtual muscle-fibers. Through an intuitive posing interface, users then begin animating their plushie. [...]

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Computational design of telescoping structures (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Christopher Yu, Keenan Crane, and Stelian Coros.
We present a novel geometric characterization of telescoping curves, and explore how free-form surfaces can be approximated by networks of such curves. Based on this principle we develop a system for computational design and fabrication which allows users to explore the space of telescoping structures; inputs to our system include user sketches or arbitrary meshes, which are then converted to a curve skeleton. We prototype applications in animation, fabrication, and robotics, using our system to design a variety of both simulated and fabricated examples. [...]

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Dynamics-aware numerical coarsening for fabrication design (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Desai Chen, David I. W. Levin, Wojciech Matusik, and Danny M. Kaufman.
In this paper we present Dynamics-Aware Coarsening (DAC) and the Boundary Balanced Impact (BBI) model which allow for the accurate simulation of dynamic, elastic objects undergoing both large scale deformation and frictional contact, at rates up to 79 times faster than state-of-the-art methods. DAC and BBI produce simulations that are accurate and fast enough to be used (for the first time) for the computational design of 3D-printable compliant dynamic mechanisms. Thus we demonstrate the efficacy of DAC and BBI by designing and fabricating mechanisms which flip, throw and jump over and onto obstacles as requested. [...]

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A computational design tool for compliant mechanisms (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Vittorio Megaro, Jonas Zehnder, Moritz Bächer, Stelian Coros, Markus Gross, and Bernhard Thomaszewski.
We present a computational tool for designing compliant mechanisms. Our method takes as input a conventional, rigidly-articulated mechanism defining the topology of the compliant design. This input can be both planar or spatial, and we support a number of common joint types which, whenever possible, are automatically replaced with parameterized flexures. As the technical core of our approach, we describe a number of objectives that shape the design space in a meaningful way, including trajectory matching, collision avoidance, lateral stability, resilience to failure, and minimizing motor torque. [...]

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Computational design and automated fabrication of kirchhoff-plateau surfaces (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Jesús Pérez, Miguel A. Otaduy, and Bernhard Thomaszewski.
We propose a computational tool for designing Kirchhoff-Plateau Surfaces---planar rod networks embedded in pre-stretched fabric that deploy into complex, three-dimensional shapes. While Kirchhoff-Plateau Surfaces offer an intriguing and expressive design space, navigating this space is made difficult by the highly nonlinear nature of the underlying mechanical problem. In order to tackle this challenge, we propose a user-guided but computer-assisted approach that combines an efficient forward simulation model with a dedicated optimization algorithm in order to implement a powerful set of design tools. [...]

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Lightweight structure design under force location uncertainty (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Erva Ulu, James Mccann, and Levent Burak Kara.
We introduce a lightweight structure optimization approach for problems in which there is uncertainty in the force locations. Such uncertainty may arise due to force contact locations that change during use or are simply unknown a priori. Given an input 3D model, regions on its boundary where arbitrary normal forces may make contact, and a total force-magnitude budget, our algorithm generates a minimum weight 3D structure that withstands any force configuration capped by the budget. Our approach works by repeatedly finding the most critical force configuration and altering the internal structure accordingly. [...]

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Functionality-aware retargeting of mechanisms to 3D shapes (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Ran Zhang, Thomas Auzinger, Duygu Ceylan, Wilmot Li, and Bernd Bickel.
We present an interactive design system to create functional mechanical objects. Our computational approach allows novice users to retarget an existing mechanical template to a user-specified input shape. Our proposed representation for a mechanical template encodes a parameterized mechanism, mechanical constraints that ensure a physically valid configuration, spatial relationships of mechanical parts to the user-provided shape, and functional constraints that specify an intended functionality. [...]

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Interactive design space exploration and optimization for CAD models (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Adriana Schulz, Jie Xu, Bo Zhu, Changxi Zheng, Eitan Grinspun, and Wojciech Matusik.
In our work, we address these challenges and develop tools that allow interactive exploration and optimization of parametric CAD data. To achieve interactive rates, we use precomputation on an adaptively sampled grid and propose a novel scheme for interpolating in this domain where each sample is a mesh with different combinatorics. Specifically, we extract partial correspondences from CAD representations for local mesh morphing and propose a novel interpolation method for adaptive grids that is both continuous/smooth and local (i.e., the influence of each sample is constrained to the local regions where mesh morphing can be computed). [...]

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CurveUps: shaping objects from flat plates with tension-actuated curvature (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Ruslan Guseinov, Eder Miguel, and Bernd Bickel.
We present a computational approach for designing CurveUps, curvy shells that form from an initially flat state. They consist of small rigid tiles that are tightly held together by two pre-stretched elastic sheets attached to them. Our method allows the realization of smooth, doubly curved surfaces that can be fabricated as a flat piece. Once released, the restoring forces of the pre-stretched sheets support the object to take shape in 3D. [...]

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Interactive Design and Stability Analysis of Decorative Joinery for Furniture (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
JiaXian Yao, Danny M. Kaufman, Yotam Gingold, Maneesh Agrawala
To perform this stability analysis, we introduce a novel variational static analysis method that addresses shortcomings of the equilibrium method for our task. Specifically, our method correctly detects sliding instabilities and reports the locations and directions of sliding and hinging failures. We show that our tool can be used to generate over 100 joints inspired by traditional woodworking and Japanese joinery. [...]

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Orthotropic k-nearest foams for additive manufacturing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2017)
Jonàs Martínez, Haichuan Song, Jérémie Dumas, and Sylvain Lefebvre
In this work, we propose a novel metamaterial with controllable, freely orientable, orthotropic elastic behavior - orthotropy means that elasticity is controlled independently along three orthogonal axes, which leads to materials that better adapt to uneven, directional load scenarios, and offer a more versatile material design primitive. The fine-scale structures are generated procedurally by a stochastic process, and resemble a foam. The absence of global organization and periodicity allows the free gradation of density, orientation, and stretch, leading to the controllable orthotropic behavior. The procedural nature of the synthesis process allows it to scale to arbitrarily large volumes at low memory costs. [...]

Direct and immediate drawing with CNC machines (ACM SCF 2017)
Jingyi Li, Jennifer Jacobs, Michelle Chang, and Björn Hartmann.
We investigate how the immediate control of computer numerical control (CNC) machines can narrow the design-fabrication gap and combine manual art practice with digital fabrication. LINC (Live Interactive Numeric Control) is a sketch-based digital design tool for authoring 2D or 3D artworks in near-real time. To use LINC, users draw strokes which are then executed in one of three modes---static, manual, or as soon as possible---by either a large-scale or desktop-sized modified CNC router. We evaluate LINC through a study with eight artists. [...]

Bend-a-rule: a fabrication-based workflow for 3D planar contour acquisition (ACM SCF 2017)
Mian Wei and Karan Singh.
Bend-a-rule is a physical tool and workflow that enables the robust acquisition of planar contours of 3D shape. Our work exemplifies the design of physical artifacts that subsequently aid in digital design and fabrication. Bend-a-rule is a ruler, fabricated by laser-cutting a periodic pattern on a rigid board. The ruler has unidirectional flexibility, and readily bends to conform to the shape of curved planar contours on physical 3D objects. We present a novel workflow, by which this curved planar contour can be digitally acquired from a single image of the physical ruler. The acquired contour is then used to design laser-cut accessory shapes that attach to physcial 3D objects along the digitally acquired contour. [...]

Joinery: Parametric Joint Generation for Laser Cut Assemblies (ACM Creativity and Cognition 2017)
Clement Zheng, Ellen Yi-Luen Do, and Jim Budd.
Laser cutting is widely used by industrial designers and mechanical engineers as a rapid modeling tool. However, designing and fabricating laser cut assemblies can be a complex and tedious process, especially for novice designers. Through our research, we developed Joinery, a parametric joint generation tool for laser cut assemblies. Through Joinery, designers simply define connections between parts of an assembly, while the system generates the joints. [...]

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Facade: Auto-generating Tactile Interfaces to Appliances (ACM CHI 2017)
Anhong Guo, Jeeeun Kim, Xiang 'Anthony' Chen, Tom Yeh, Scott E. Hudson, Jennifer Mankoff, Jeffrey P. Bigham
We introduce Facade—a crowdsourced fabrication pipeline to help blind people inde¬ pendently make physical interfaces accessible by adding a 3D printed augmentation of tactile buttons overlaying the original panel. Facade users capture a photo of the appliance with a readily available fiducial marker (a dollar bill) for recovering size information. This image is sent to multiple crowd workers, who work in parallel to quickly label and describe elements of the interface. Facade then generates a 3D model for a layer of tactile and pressable buttons that fits over the original controls. [...]

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EdiPulse: Investigating a Playful Approach to Self-monitoring through 3D Printed Chocolate Treats (ACM CHI 2017)
Rohit Ashok Khot, Deepti Aggarwal, Ryan Pennings, Larissa Hjorth, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
We introduce EdiPulse a novel system that creates activity treats to offer playful reflections on everyday physical activity through the appealing medium of chocolate. EdiPulse translates self-monitored data from physical activity into small 3D printed chocolate treats. Determination, Affection, and Co-experience. We conclude by highlighting key implications of our work for future playful food-based technology design in supporting the experience of being physically active. [...]

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Transformative Appetite (ACM CHI 2017)
Wen Wang, Lining Yao, Chin-Yi Cheng, Teng Zhang, Daniel Levine, Hiroshi Ishii
We developed a concept of transformative appetite, where edible 2D films made of common food materials (protein, cellulose or starch) can transform into 3D food during cooking. This transformation process is triggered by water adsorption, and it is strongly compatible with the 'flat packaging' concept for substantially reducing shipping costs and storage space. To develop these transformable foods, we performed material-based design, established a hybrid fabrication strategy, and conducted performance simulation. [...]

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Cardboard Machine Kit: Modules for the Rapid Prototyping of Rapid Prototyping Machines (ACM CHI 2017)
Nadya Peek, James Coleman, Ilan Moyer, Neil Gershenfeld.
We propose a novel set of modules, the Cardboard Machine Kit, for the construction of digital fabrication machines. These open-source modules are implemented using cardboard frames, stepper motors, and networked electronics controlled through a Python library. We evaluated the kit both through machine building workshops and by studying the usage of the kit in the wild. [...]

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WireDraw: 3D Wire Sculpturing Guided with Mixed Reality (ACM CHI 2017)
Ya-Ting Yue, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongliang Yang, Gang Ren, Yi-King Choi, Wenping Wang.
We present a mixed reality system, called `WireDraw', to immersively guide the 3D drawing for easy wire sculpturing. The system design is based on novel 3D drawing principles and the subsequent optimization, making the stroke sequence of the wire model drawable and easy to draw. On-the-fly edits on unsatisfactory strokes are also allowed for creative design. [...]

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Printflatables: Printing Human-Scale, Functional and Dynamic Inflatable Objects (ACM CHI 2017)
Harpreet Sareen, Udayan Umapathi, Patrick Shin, Yasuaki Kakehi, Jifei Ou, Pattie Maes, Hiroshi Ishii.
Printflatables is a design and fabrication system for human-scale, functional and dynamic inflatable objects. We use inextensible thermoplastic fabric as the raw material with the key principle of introducing folds and thermal sealing. Upon inflation, the sealed object takes the expected three dimensional shape. [...]

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Pineal: Bringing Passive Objects to Life with Embedded Mobile Devices (ACM CHI 2017)
David Ledo, Fraser Anderson, Ryan Schmidt, Lora Oehlberg, Saul Greenberg, Tovi Grossman.
To mitigate this, we created Pineal, a design tool that lets end-users: (1) modify 3D models to include a smart watch or phone as its heart; (2) specify high-level interactive behaviours through visual programming; and (3) have the phone or watch act out such behaviours as the objects' "smarts". Furthermore, a series of prototypes show how Pineal exploits mobile sensing and output, and automatically generates 3D printed form-factors for rich, interactive, objects. [...]

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TrussFab: Fabricating Sturdy Large-Scale Structures on Desktop 3D Printers (ACM CHI 2017)
Robert Kovacs, Anna Seufert, Ludwig Wall, Hsiang-Ting Chen, Florian Meinel, Willi Müller, Sijing You, Maximilian Brehm, Jonathan Striebel, Yannis Kommana, Alexander Popiak, Thomas Bläsius, Patrick Baudisch.
We present TrussFab, an integrated end-to-end system that allows users to fabricate large scale structures that are sturdy enough to carry human weight. TrussFab achieves the large scale by complementing 3D print with plastic bottles. It does not use these bottles as "bricks" though, but as beams that form structurally sound node-link structures, also known as trusses, allowing it to handle the forces resulting from scale and load. [...]

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ProtoMold: An Interactive Vacuum Forming System for Rapid Prototyping (ACM CHI 2017)
Junichi Yamaoka, Yasuaki Kakehi.
We propose a novel fabrication machine called ProtoMold, which uses interactive vacuum forming system for rapid prototyping. ProtoMold combines a dynamical shape-changing surface that consists of 12 × 8 linear actuators and a vacuum forming system. According to the shape of the surface, this system can mold various 2.5 dimensional objects quickly. [...]

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Flexibles: Deformation-Aware 3D-Printed Tangibles for Capacitive Touchscreens (ACM CHI 2017)
Martin Schmitz, Jürgen Steimle, Jochen Huber, Niloofar Dezfuli, Max Mühlhäuser
We introduce Flexibles: 3D-printed flexible tangibles that are deformation-aware and operate on capacitive touchscreens. Flexibles add expressive deformation input to interaction with on-screen tangibles. Based on different types of deformation mapping, we contribute a set of 3D-printable mechanisms that capture pressing, squeezing, and bending input with multiple levels of intensities. [...]

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Digital Mechanical Metamaterials (ACM CHI 2017)
Alexandra Ion, Ludwig Wall, Robert Kovacs, Patrick Baudisch.
We explore how to embody mechanical computation into 3D printed objects, i.e., without electronic sensors, actuators, or controllers typically used for this purpose. A key benefit of our approach is that the resulting objects can be 3D printed in one piece and thus do not require assembly. [...]

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Stretching the Bounds of 3D Printing with Embedded Textiles (ACM CHI 2017)
Michael L. Rivera, Melissa Moukperian, Daniel Ashbrook, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott E. Hudson.
Combining 3D printing and textiles opens up new opportunities for rapidly creating rigid objects with embedded flexibility as well as soft materials imbued with additional functionality. We introduce a suite of techniques for integrating 3D printing with textiles during the printing process, opening up a new design space that takes inspiration from both fields. [...]

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Electrick: Low-Cost Touch Sensing Using Electric Field Tomography (ACM CHI 2017)
Yang Zhang, Gierad Laput, Chris Harrison
We show that our technique is compatible with commonplace manufacturing methods, such as spray/brush coating, vacuum forming, and casting/molding enabling a wide range of possible uses and outputs. Our technique can also bring touch interactivity to rapidly fabricated objects, including those that are laser cut or 3D printed. [...]

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WireFab: Mix-Dimensional Modeling and Fabrication for 3D Mesh Models (ACM CHI 2017)
Min Liu, Yunbo Zhang, Jing Bai, Yuanzhi Cao, Jeffrey Alperovich, Karthik Ramani
The WireFab is designed to allow the user to choose how to best preserve the fidelity of the topological structure and articulation motion while selectively maintaining the fidelity of the geometric appearance. Compared to 3D-printing based high-fidelity fabrication systems, WireFab increases prototyping speed by ignoring unnecessary geometric details while preserving structural integrity and articulation motion. [...]

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Digital Fabrication Techniques for Cultural Heritage: A Survey (EUROGRAPHICS 2017)
Roberto Scopigno, Paolo Cignoni, Nico Pietroni, Marco Callieri, Matteo Dellepiane.
This survey overviews the various fabrication technologies, discussing their strengths, limitations and costs. Various successful uses of 3D printing in the Cultural Heritage are analysed, which should also be useful for other application contexts. We review works that have attempted to extend fabrication technologies in order to deal with the specific issues in the use of digital fabrication in the Cultural Heritage. Finally, we also propose areas for future research. [...]

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Flexy: Shape-Customizable, Single-Layer, Inkjet Printable Patterns for 1D and 2D Flex Sensing (ACM TEI 2017)
Nirzaree Vadgama, Jürgen Steimle.
We contribute a new technique for fabricating highly customized 1D and 2D flex sensing surfaces on thin and flexible substrates. It enables designers and makers to easily, quickly and inexpensively realize thin physical objects in custom shapes with an embedded deformation sensor. The deformation sensor is digitally designed and then fabricated with a single layer of conductive material in a single pass, using an off-the-shelf inkjet printer. [...]

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New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures (IOPScience 2017)
Anders Olsson, Maja S Hellsing and Adrian R Rennie
We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. [...]



Engaging Amateurs in the Design, Fabrication, and Assembly of Electronic Devices (ACM DIS 2016)
David A. Mellis, Leah Buechley, Mitchel Resnick, and Björn Hartmann
We describe a six-session workshop in which eight participants made wifi-connected devices through the design and fabrication of custom printed circuit boards. We explore the implications of using components and processes analogous to those in commercial products, as opposed to the limited set of higher-level building blocks found in toolkits for hobbyist electronics. We highlight unique advantages and challenges of a personal fabrication approach. We explore the role of attitudes in identifying a suitable audience for these activities. [...]

Productive Frictions: Moving from Digital to Material Prototyping and Low-Volume Production for Design Research (ACM DIS 2016)
Ron Wakkary, Henry Lin, Shannon Mortimer, Lauren Low, Audrey Desjardins, Keith Doyle, and Philip Robbins
We focus on the lessons we learned from the challenges and design opportunities that arose in moving from digital processes to ceramic processes. We reflected on these lessons and developed thematic notions we refer to as frictions. These include shifting constraints, naive expertise, manual automation, and dynamic materiality. The contributions of this paper are new design insights into the combination of digital and material processes for studio based prototyping and low-volume production and adds to the emerging relevance of digital fabrication, physical fabrication, and physical materials to interaction design and HCI research. [...]

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3D Folded PrintGami: Transforming Passive 3D Printed Objects to Interactive by Inserted Paper Origami Circuits (ACM DIS 2016)
Claudia Daudén Roquet, Jeeeun Kim, and Tom Yeh
In this paper, we introduce a process of integrating paper circuit into a 3D printed object, combining two universal fabrication techniques, 3D printing and paper crafting: 1) design a hollow 3D model, 2) construct circuits on the 2D planar cutout of this figure, 3) pause 3D printing to insert folded circuits in, 4) resume to continue printing. We empower makers and tinkerers to employ pervasive technology to build interactive 3D objects without hacking machine, obtaining professional utilities, or buying expensive materials. [...]

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Probing the Potential of Post-Anthropocentric 3D Printing (ACM DIS 2016)
Laura Devendorf, Abigail De Kosnik, Kate Mattingly, and Kimiko Ryokai
We describe how existing designs can be seen as anthropocentric, framing the human maker as visionary and commander of passive machines and materials. We then present an alternative system for 3D printing, called Redeform, which explores how a post-anthropocentric framing of makers as collaborators with machines and materials changes the design of 3D printers. We place our system within a lineage of performances that have explored relationships between humans and nonhumans since the 1950s. In doing so, we explore and speculate on the opportunities for operationalizing post-anthropocentric theories within the specific context of the maker movement. [...]

ProxyPrint: Supporting Crafting Practice through Physical Computational Proxies (ACM DIS 2016)
Cesar Torres, Wilmot Li, and Eric Paulos
We investigate how DF artifacts can function as static intermediary tools, which we term proxies, to support crafting practice. We focus on the wire-wrapping process where physical wire is bent into complex shapes and build DF fixtures to aid with construction and fabrication. We explore how these proxies can be generated to provide users with different levels-of-assistance and evaluate how these proxies affect the making process. We show that our proxies affect quality and speed and yield different making experiences between novice and expert craftspeople. [...]

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FusePrint: A DIY 2.5D Printing Technique Embracing Everyday Artifacts (ACM DIS 2016)
Kening Zhu, Alexandru Dancu, and Shengdong (Shen) Zhao
Based on our polynomial model on 2.5D resin printing, we developed the design interface of FusePrint, which allows users to design the printed shapes using physical objects as references, generates projection patterns, and notifies users when to place the objects in the resin during the printing process. Our workshops suggested that FusePrint is easy to learn and use, provides a greater level of interactivity, and could be useful for a wide range of applications domains including: mechanical fabrication, wearable accessory, toys, interactive systems, etc. [...]

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Computational multicopter design (SIGGRAPH Asia 2016)
Tao Du, Adriana Schulz, Bo Zhu, Bernd Bickel, and Wojciech Matusik
We present an interactive system for computational design, optimization, and fabrication of multicopters. Our computational approach allows non-experts to design, explore, and evaluate a wide range of different multicopters. We provide users with an intuitive interface for assembling a multicopter from a collection of components (e.g., propellers, motors, and carbon fiber rods). [...]

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Stochastic structural analysis for context-aware design and fabrication (SIGGRAPH Asia 2016)
Timothy Langlois, Ariel Shamir, Daniel Dror, Wojciech Matusik, and David I. W. Levin
In this paper we propose failure probabilities as a semantically and mechanically meaningful measure of object fragility. We present a stochastic finite element method which exploits fast rigid body simulation and reduced-space approaches to compute spatially varying failure probabilities. We use an explicit rigid body simulation to emulate the real-world loading conditions an object might experience, including persistent and transient frictional contact, while allowing us to combine several such scenarios together. [...]

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Fabrication of freeform objects by principal strips (SIGGRAPH Asia 2016)
Masahito Takezawa, Takuma Imai, Kentaro Shida, and Takashi Maekawa
Our novel method uses orthogonal principal strips to fabricate objects whose boundary consists of freeform surfaces. This approach not only lends an artistic touch to the appearance of objects, but also provides directions for reinforcement, as the surface is mostly bent along the lines of curvature. Moreover, it is unnecessary to adjust the bending of these orthogonal strips during the construction process, which automatically reforms the design shape as if it is memorized, provided the strips possess bending rigidity. [...]

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FrameFab: robotic fabrication of frame shapes (SIGGRAPH Asia 2016)
Yijiang Huang, Juyong Zhang, Xin Hu, Guoxian Song, Zhongyuan Liu, Lei Yu, and Ligang Liu
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to generate a feasible fabrication sequence for general frame shapes. To solve this non-trivial combinatorial problem, we develop a divide-and-conquer strategy that first decomposes the input frame shape into stable layers via a constrained sparse optimization model. Then we search a feasible sequence for each layer via a local optimization method together with a backtracking strategy. [...]

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FlexMolds: automatic design of flexible shells for molding (SIGGRAPH Asia 2016)
Luigi Malomo, Nico Pietroni, Bernd Bickel, and Paolo Cignoni
We present FlexMolds, a novel computational approach to automatically design flexible, reusable molds that, once 3D printed, allow us to physically fabricate, by means of liquid casting, multiple copies of complex shapes with rich surface details and complex topology. The approach to design such flexible molds is based on a greedy bottom-up search of possible cuts over an object, evaluating for each possible cut the feasibility of the resulting mold. [...]

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Stretchis: Fabricating Highly Stretchable User Interfaces (ACM UIST 2016)
Michael Wessely, Theophanis Tsandilas, and Wendy E. Mackay.
We use Polydimethylsiloxan (PDMS) as the base material for a Stretchi and show how to embed stretchable touch and proximity sensors and stretchable electroluminescent displays. Stretchis can be ultra-thin (≈ 200μm), flexible, and fully customizable, enabling non-expert makers to add interaction to elastic physical objects, shape-changing surfaces, fabrics, and the human body. [...]

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Digital Gastronomy: Methods & Recipes for Hybrid Cooking (ACM UIST 2016)
Moran Mizrahi, Amos Golan, Ariel Bezaleli Mizrahi, Rotem Gruber, Alexander Zoonder Lachnise, Amit Zoran.
We envision a culture of Digital Gastronomy that enhances traditional cooking with new interactive capabilities, rather than replacing the chef with an autonomous machine. Thus, we deploy existing digital fabrication instruments in traditional kitchen and integrate them into cooking via hybrid recipes. This concept merges manual and digital procedures, and imports parametric design tools into cooking, allowing the chef to personalize the tastes, flavors, structures and aesthetics of dishes. [...]

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Aesthetic Electronics: Designing, Sketching, and Fabricating Circuits through Digital Exploration (ACM UIST 2016)
Joanne Lo, Cesar Torres, Isabel Yang, Jasper O'Leary, Danny Kaufman, Wilmot Li, Mira Dontcheva, Eric Paulos.
Ellustrate guides users through the fabrication and debugging process, easing the task of practical circuit creation while supporting designers' aesthetic decisions throughout the circuit authoring workflow. In a formal user study, we demonstrate how Ellustrate enables a new electronic design conversation that combines electronics, materials, and visual aesthetic concerns. [...]

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Mobile Fabrication (ACM UIST 2016)
Thijs Roumen, Bastian Kruck, Tobias Dürschmid, Tobias Nack, and Patrick Baudisch
We present an exploration into the future of fabrication, in particular the vision of mobile fabrication, which we define as "personal fabrication on the go". From our experience with the prototypes we derive hardware requirements to make mobile fabrication also technically feasible. [...]

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Metamaterial Mechanisms (ACM UIST 2016)
Alexandra Ion, Johannes Frohnhofen, Ludwig Wall, Robert Kovacs, Mirela Alistar, Jack Lindsay, Pedro Lopes, Hsiang-Ting Chen, and Patrick Baudisch
In order to allow users to create metamaterial mechanisms efficiently we implemented a specialized 3D editor. It allows users to place different types of cells, including the shear cell, thereby allowing users to add mechanical functionality to their objects. To help users verify their designs during editing, our editor allows users to apply forces and simulates how the object deforms in response. [...]

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A 3D Printer for Interactive Electromagnetic Devices (ACM UIST 2016)
Huaishu Peng, François Guimbretière, James McCann, and Scott Hudson
We introduce a new form of low-cost 3D printer to print interactive electromechanical objects with wound in place coils. At the heart of this printer is a mechanism for depositing wire within a five degree of freedom (5DOF) fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer. Copper wire can be used with this mechanism to form coils which induce magnetic fields as a current is passed through them. [...]

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ChaCra: an interactive design system for rapid character crafting (ACM SCA 2016)
Vittorio Megaro, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Damien Gauge, Eitan Grinspun, Stelian Coros, and Markus Gross
We propose an interactive design system for rapid crafting of planar mechanical characters. Our method combines the simplicity of sketch-based modeling with the ease of defining motion through extreme poses. In order to translate digital designs into fabrication-ready descriptions, our method automatically computes the mechanical structure that makes the characters move as desired. [...]

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Stenciling: Designing Structurally-Sound Surfaces with Decorative Patterns (ACM SGP 2016)
Christian Schumacher, Bernhard Thomaszewski, and Markus Gross We present a novel method to design shells with artistic cutouts in a manner that produces a stable final result. The process of stenciling, removing material with a fixed shape, is a particularly appealing way to introduce a decorative pattern into the design of architectural structures, furniture, or household objects. [...]

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Printed Perforated Lampshades for Continuous Projective Images (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Haisen Zhao, Lin Lu, Yuan Wei, Dani Lischinski, Andrei Sharf, Daniel Cohen-Or, Baoquan Chen.
We present a technique for designing 3D-printed perforated lampshades that project continuous grayscale images onto the surrounding walls. Given the geometry of the lampshade and a target grayscale image, our method computes a distribution of tiny holes over the shell, such that the combined footprints of the light emanating through the holes form the target image on a nearby diffuse surface. [...]

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CofiFab: coarse-to-fine fabrication of large 3D objects (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Peng Song, Bailin Deng, Ziqi Wang, Zhichao Dong, Wei Li, Chi-Wing Fu, and Ligang Liu
This paper presents CofiFab, a coarse-to-fine 3D fabrication solution, combining 3D printing and 2D laser cutting for cost-effective fabrication of large objects at lower cost and higher speed. Our key approach is to first build coarse internal base structures within the given 3D object using laser cutting, and then attach thin 3D-printed parts, as an external shell, onto the base to recover the fine surface details. [...]

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Connected fermat spirals for layered fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016).
Haisen Zhao, Fanglin Gu, Qi-Xing Huang, Jorge Garcia, Yong Chen, Changhe Tu, Bedrich Benes, Hao Zhang, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen
We develop a new kind of "space-filling" curves, connected Fermat spirals, and show their compelling properties as a tool path fill pattern for layered fabrication. Unlike classical space-filling curves such as the Peano or Hilbert curves, which constantly wind and bind to preserve locality, connected Fermat spirals are formed mostly by long, low-curvature paths. This geometric property, along with continuity, influences the quality and efficiency of layered fabrication.

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Procedural voronoi foams for additive manufacturing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Jonás Martìnez, Jérémie Dumas, and Sylvain Lefebvre
In this paper we propose to study procedural, aperiodic microstructures inspired by Voronoi open-cell foams. The absence of regularity affords for a simple approach to grade the foam geometry --- and thus its mechanical properties --- within a target object and its surface. Rather than requiring a global optimization process, the microstructures are directly generated to exhibit a specified elastic behavior. [...]

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Printing arbitrary meshes with a 5DOF wireframe printer (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Rundong Wu, Huaishu Peng, François Guimbretiére, and Steve Marschner
We formalize the collision avoidance problem using a directed graph, and propose an algorithm that finds a locally minimal set of constraints on the order of edges that guarantees there will be no collisions. Then a second algorithm orders the edges so that the printing progresses smoothly. Though meshes do exist that still cannot be printed, our method prints a wide range of models that previous methods cannot, and it provides a fundamental enabling algorithm for future development of wireframe printing. [...]

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Designing structurally-sound ornamental curve networks (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Jonas Zehnder, Stelian Coros, and Bernhard Thomaszewski
We present a computational tool for designing ornamental curve networks---structurally-sound physical surfaces with user-controlled aesthetics. In contrast to approaches that leverage texture synthesis for creating decorative surface patterns, our method relies on user-defined spline curves as central design primitives. [...]

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Synthesis of filigrees for digital fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Weikai Chen, Xiaolong Zhang, Shiqing Xin, Yang Xia, Sylvain Lefebvre, and Wenping Wang
Filigrees are thin patterns found in jewelry, ornaments and lace fabrics. They are often formed of repeated base elements manually composed into larger, delicate patterns. Digital fabrication simplifies the process of turning a virtual model of a filigree into a physical object. However, designing a virtual model of a filigree remains a time consuming and challenging task. The difficulty lies in tightly packing together the base elements while covering a target surface. [...]

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Computational design of reconfigurables (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Akash Garg, Alec Jacobson, and Eitan Grinspun
A reconfigurable is an object or collection of objects whose transformation between various states defines its functionality or aesthetic appeal. For example, consider a mechanical assembly composed of interlocking pieces, a transforming folding bicycle, or a space-saving arrangement of apartment furniture. [...]

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Acoustic voxels: computational optimization of modular acoustic filters (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Dingzeyu Li, David I. W. Levin, Wojciech Matusik, and Changxi Zheng
A reconfigurable is an object or collection of objects whose transformation between various states defines its functionality or aesthetic appeal. For example, consider a mechanical assembly composed of interlocking pieces, a transforming folding bicycle, or a space-saving arrangement of apartment furniture. [...]

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Computational thermoforming (ACM SIGGRAPH 2016)
Christian Schüller, Daniele Panozzo, Anselm Grundhöfer, Henning Zimmer, Evgeni Sorkine, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung
We propose a method to fabricate textured 3D models using thermoforming. Differently from industrial techniques, which target mass production of a specific shape, we propose a combined hardware and software solution to manufacture customized, unique objects. Our method simulates the forming process and converts the texture of a given digital 3D model into a pre-distorted image that we transfer onto a plastic sheet. During thermoforming, the sheet deforms to create a faithful physical replica of the digital model. [...]

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Balancing 3D models with movable masses (EUROGRAPHICS 2016, Proceedings of VMV'16)
Romain Prévost, Moritz Bächer, Wojciech Jarosz, Olga Sorkine-Hornung
e present an algorithm to balance 3D printed models using movable embedded masses. As input, the user provides a 3D model together with the desired suspension, standing, and immersion objectives. Our technique then determines the placement and suitable sizing of a set of hollow capsules with embedded metallic spheres, leveraging the resulting multiple centers of mass to simultaneously satisfy the combination of these objectives. [...]

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Buoyancy Optimization for Computational Fabrication (EUROGRAPHICS 2016)
Lingfeng Wang, and Emily Whiting
This paper introduces a design and fabrication pipeline for creating floating forms. Our method optimizes for buoyant equilibrium and stability of complex 3D shapes, applying a voxel-carving technique to control the mass distribution. The resulting objects achieve a desired floating pose defined by a user-specified waterline height and orientation. [...]

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Saliency-Preserving Slicing Optimization for Effective 3D Printing (EUROGRAPHICS 2016)
Weiming Wang, Haiyuan Chao, Jing Tong, Zhouwang Yang, Xin Tong, Hang Li, Xiuping Liu, and Ligang Liu
We present an adaptive slicing scheme for reducing the manufacturing time for 3D printing systems. Based on a new saliency-based metric, our method optimizes the thicknesses of slicing layers to save printing time and preserve the visual quality of the printing results. We formulate the problem as a constrained optimization and compute the slicing result via a two-step optimization scheme. [...]

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DefSense: Computational Design of Customized Deformable Input Devices (ACM CHI 2016)
Moritz Bächer, Benjamin Hepp, Fabrizio Pece, Paul G. Kry, Bernd Bickel, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Otmar Hilliges.
We propose to embed piezoresistive sensing elements into flexible 3D printed objects. These sensing elements are then utilized to recover rich and natural user interactions at runtime. Designing such objects manually is a challenging and hard problem for all but the simplest geometries and deformations. Our method simultaneously optimizes the internal routing of the sensing elements and computes a mapping from low-level sensor readings to user-specified outputs in order to minimize reconstruction error. [...]

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CardBoardiZer: Creatively Customize, Articulate and Fold 3D Mesh Models (ACM CHI 2016)
Yunbo Zhang, Wei Gao, Luis Paredes, Karthik Ramani.
This paper presents CardBoardiZer, a rapid cardboard based prototyping platform that allows everyday sculptural 3D models to be easily customized, articulated and folded. We develop a building platform to allow the designer to 1) import a desired 3D shape, 2) customize articulated partitions into planar or volumetric foldable patterns, and 3) define rotational movements between partitions. [...]

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ExoSkin: On-Body Fabrication (ACM CHI 2016)
Madeline Gannon, Tovi Grossman, and George Fitzmaurice
We present ExoSkin, a hybrid fabrication system for designing and printing digital artifacts directly on the body. ExoSkin utilizes a custom built fabrication machine designed specifically for on-body printing. ExoSkin utilizes a custom built fabrication machine designed specifically for on-body printing. We demonstrate the potential of on-body fabrication with a set of sample workflows, and share feedback from initial observation sessions. [...]

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The Hybrid Bricolage: Bridging Parametric Design with Craft through Algorithmic Modularity (ACM CHI 2016)
Tamara Anna Efrat, Moran Mizrahi, and Amit Zoran
Our hypothesis is that the arrangement of parametric design in modular representation, in the form of a catalog, can assist makers unfamiliar with this practice. We evaluate this assumption in the realm of bag design, through a Honeycomb Smocking Pattern Catalog and custom Computer-Aided Smocking (CAS) design software. [...]

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Foldem: Heterogeneous Object Fabrication via Selective Ablation of Multi-Material Sheets (ACM CHI 2016)
Varun Perumal C and Daniel Wigdor
oldem, a novel method of rapid fabrication of objects with multi-material properties is presented. Our specially formulated Foldem sheet allows users to fabricate and easily assemble objects with rigid, bendable, and flexible properties using a standard laser-cutter. [...]

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Steel-Sense: Integrating Machine Elements with Sensors by Additive Manufacturing (ACM CHI 2016)
Tatyana Vasilevitsky and Amit Zoran
We present Steel-Sense, an approach to joining these two families of elements to create a new type of HCI design primitive. We leverage recent developments in 3D printing to embed sensing in metal structures that are otherwise difficult to equip with sensors, and present four design principles, implementing. [...]

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xPrint: A Modularized Liquid Printer for Smart Materials Deposition (ACM CHI 2016)
Guanyun Wang, Lining Yao, Wen Wang, Jifei Ou, Chin-Yi Cheng, and Hiroshi Ishii
To meet the increasing requirements of HCI researchers who are looking into using liquid-based materials (e.g., hydrogels) to create novel interfaces, we present a design strategy for HCI researchers to build and customize a liquid-based smart material printing platform with off-the-shelf or easy-to-machine parts. For the hardware, we suggest a magnetic assembly-based modular design. [...]

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ChronoFab: Fabricating Motion (ACM CHI 2016)
Rubaiat Habib Kazi, Tovi Grossman, Cory Mogk, Ryan Schmidt, and George Fitzmaurice
We present ChronoFab, a 3D modeling tool to craft motion sculptures, tangible representations of 3D animated models, visualizing an object's motion with static, transient, ephemeral visuals that are left behind. Our tool casts 3D modeling as a dynamic art-form by employing 3D animation and dynamic simulation for the modeling of motion sculptures. [...]

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What you Sculpt is What you Get: Modeling Physical Interactive Devices with Clay and 3D Printed Widgets (ACM CHI 2016)
Michael D. Jones, Kevin Seppi, and Dan R. Olsen
We present a method for fabricating prototypes of interactive computing devices from clay sculptures without requiring the designer to be skilled in CAD software. The method creates a "what you sculpt is what you get" process that mimics the "what you see is what you get" processes used in interface design for 2D screens. [...]

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HotFlex: Post-print Customization of 3D Prints Using Embedded State Change (ACM CHI 2016)
Daniel Groeger, Elena Chong Loo, and Jürgen Steimle
We propose HotFlex: a new approach allowing precisely located parts of a 3D object to transition on demand from a solid into a deformable state and back. This approach enables intuitive hands-on remodeling, personalization, and customization of a 3D object after it is printed. We introduce the approach and present an implementation based on computer-controlled printed heating elements that are embedded within the 3D object. [...]

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RetroFab: A Design Tool for Retrofitting Physical Interfaces using Actuators, Sensors and 3D Printing (ACM CHI 2016)
Raf Ramakers, Fraser Anderson, Tovi Grossman, and George Fitzmaurice
We present RetroFab, an end-to-end design and fabrication environment that allows non-experts to retrofit physical interfaces. Our approach allows for changing the layout and behavior of physical interfaces. Unlike customizing software interfaces, physical interfaces are often challenging to adapt because of their rigidity. With RetroFab, a new physical interface is designed that serves as a proxy interface for the legacy controls that are now operated using actuators. [...]

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On-The-Fly Print: Incremental Printing While Modelling (ACM CHI 2016)
Huaishu Peng, Rundong Wu, Steve Marschner, and François Guimbretière
In this paper we propose On-the-Fly Print: a 3D modeling approach that allows the user to design 3D models digitally while having a low-fidelity physical wireframe model printed in parallel. Our software starts printing features as soon as they are created and updates the physical model as needed. [...]

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Cilllia: 3D Printed Micro-Pillar Structures for Surface Texture, Actuation and Sensing (ACM CHI 2016)
Jifei Ou, Gershon Dublon, Chin-Yi Cheng, Felix Heibeck, Karl Willis, and Hiroshi Ishii
This work presents a method for 3D printing hair-like structures on both flat and curved surfaces. It allows a user to design and fabricate hair geometries that are smaller than 100 micron. We built a software platform to let users quickly define the hair angle, thickness, density, and height. [...]

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Destructive Games: Creating Value by Destroying Valuable Physical Objects (ACM CHI 2016)
David Eickhoff, Stefanie Mueller, and Patrick Baudisch
We present a series of games that result in valuable physical objects being destroyed objects owned by the players. Interestingly, we found that we can design these games to be desirable to play, despite the loss of the object, by instead producing social value. [...]

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Understanding Newcomers to 3D Printing: Motivations, Workflows, and Barriers of Casual Makers (ACM CHI 2016)
Nathaniel Hudson, Celena Alcock, and Parmit K. Chilana
We present a study of casual makers, users who have no prior experience with fabrication and mainly explore walk-up-and-use 3D printing services at public print centers, such as libraries, universities, and schools. We carried out 32 interviews with casual makers, print center operators, and fabrication experts to understand the motivations, workflows, and barriers in appropriating 3D printing technologies. [...]

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AutoConnect: Computational Design of 3D-Printable Connectors (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2015)
Yuki Koyama, Shinjiro Sueda, Emma Steinhardt, Takeo Igarashi, Ariel Shamir, Wojciech Matusik.
We present AutoConnect, an automatic method that creates customized, 3D-printable connectors attaching two physical objects together. Users simply position and orient virtual models of the two objects that they want to connect and indicate some auxiliary information such as weight and dimensions. Then, AutoConnect creates several alternative designs that users can choose from for 3D printing. The design of the connector is created by combining two holders, one for each object. [...]

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Interactive design of 3D-printable robotic creatures (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2015)
Vittorio Megaro, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Maurizio Nitti, Otmar Hilliges, Markus Gross, and Stelian Coros
We present an interactive design system that allows casual users to quickly create 3D-printable robotic creatures. Our approach automates the tedious parts of the design process while providing ample room for customization of morphology, proportions, gait and motion style. The technical core of our framework is an efficient optimization-based solution that generates stable motions for legged robots of arbitrary designs. [...]

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Perceptual models of preference in 3D printing direction (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2015)
Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Athina Panotopoulou, Emily Whiting, and Charlie C. L. Wang
This paper introduces a perceptual model for determining 3D printing orientations. Additive manufacturing methods involving low-cost 3D printers often require robust branching support structures to prevent material collapse at overhangs. Although the designed shape can successfully be made by adding supports, residual material remains at the contact points after the supports have been removed, resulting in unsightly surface artifacts. Moreover, fine surface details on the fabricated model can easily be damaged while removing supports. [...]

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Makers' Marks: Physical Markup for Designing and Fabricating Functional Objects (ACM UIST 2015)
Valkyrie Savage, Sean Follmer, Jingyi Li, Björn Hartmann
We aim to allow makers to design and 3D print functional mechanical and electronic assemblies. Based on a formative exploration, we created Makers' Marks, a system based on physically authoring assemblies with sculpting materials and annotation stickers. Makers physically sculpt the shape of an object and attach stickers to place existing parts or high-level features (such as parting lines). [...]

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ReForm: Integrating Physical and Digital Design through Bidirectional Fabrication (ACM UIST 2015)
Christian Weichel, John Hardy, Jason Alexander, and Hans Gellersen
To provide a more flexible design process that allows objects to iteratively evolve through both digital and physical input, we introduce bidirectional fabrication. To demonstrate the concept, we built ReForm, a system that integrates digital modeling with shape input, shape output, annotation for machine commands, and visual output. [...]

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LaserStacker: Fabricating 3D Objects by Laser Cutting and Welding (ACM UIST 2015)
Udayan Umapathi, Hsiang-Ting Chen, Stefanie Mueller, Ludwig Wall, Anna Seufert, and Patrick Baudisch
We propose eliminating the assembly step with our system LaserStacker. The key idea is to use the laser cutter to not only cut but also to weld. Users place not one acrylic sheet, but a stack of acrylic sheets into their cutter. [...]

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HapticPrint: Designing Feel Aesthetics for Digital Fabrication (ACM UIST 2015)
Cesar Torres, Tim Campbell, Neil Kumar, and Eric Paulos
We present HapticPrint as a pair of design tools to easily modify the feel of a 3D model. Our external tool maps textures and UI elements onto arbitrary shapes, and our internal tool modifies the internal geometry of models for novel compliance and weight characteristics. We demonstrate the value of HapticPrint with a range of applications that expand the aesthetics of feel, usability, and interactivity in 3D artifacts. [...]

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Patching Physical Objects (ACM UIST 2015)
Alexander Teibrich, Stefanie Mueller, François Guimbretière, Robert Kovacs, Stefan Neubert, and Patrick Baudisch
In this paper, we propose a different approach: instead of re-printing the entire object from scratch, we suggest patching the existing object to reflect the next design iteration. Since only a fraction of the entire object is refabricated, our approach reduces material consumption and plastic waste (for our example objects by 82% and 93% respectively). [...]

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RevoMaker: Enabling Multi-directional and Functionally-embedded 3D printing using a Rotational Cuboidal Platform (ACM UIST 2015)
Wei Gao, Yunbo Zhang, Diogo C. Nazzetta, Karthik Ramani, and Raymond J. Cipra
We present "RevoMaker", a self-contained 3D printer that creates direct out-of-the-printer functional prototypes, using less build material and with substantially less reliance on support structures. By modifying a standard low-cost FDM printer with a revolving cuboidal platform and printing partitioned geometries around cuboidal facets, we achieve a multidirectional additive prototyping process to reduce the print and support material use. [...]

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Protopiper: Physically Sketching Room-Sized Objects at Actual Scale (ACM UIST 2015)
Harshit Agrawal, Udayan Umapathi, Robert Kovacs, Johannes Frohnhofen, Hsiang-Ting Chen, Stefanie Mueller, Patrick Baudisch
Protopiper is a mechanical device that allows users to sketch room-sized objects at actual scale. The key idea behind protopiper is that it forms adhesive tape into tubes as its main building material, rather than extruded plastic or photopolymer lines. Since the resulting tubes are hollow they offer excellent strength-to-weight ratio, thus scale well to large structures. [...]

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3D Printed Hair: Fused Deposition Modeling of Soft Strands, Fibers and Bristles (ACM UIST 2015)
Gierad Laput, Xiang 'Anthony' Chen, and Chris Harrison
We introduce a technique for furbricating 3D printed hair, fibers and bristles, by exploiting the stringing phenomena inherent in 3D printers using fused deposition modeling. Our approach offers a range of design parameters for controlling the properties of single strands and also of hair bundles. [...]

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Computational design of walking automata (ACM SCA 2015)
Gaurav Bharaj, Stelian Coros, Bernhard Thomaszewski, James Tompkin, Bernd Bickel, and Hanspeter Pfister
Creating mechanical automata that can walk in stable and pleasing manners is a challenging task that requires both skill and expertise. We propose to use computational design to offset the technical difficulties of this process. A simple drag-and-drop interface allows casual users to create personalized walking toys from a library of pre-defined template mechanisms. [...]

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Texture Mapping Real-World Objects with Hydrographics (ACM SGP 2015)
Daniele Panozzo, Olga Diamanti, Sylvain Paris, Marco Tarini, Evgeni Sorkine, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung
In this paper, we develop a method to enable texture mapping of physical objects, that is, we allow one to map an arbitrary color image onto a three-dimensional object. Our approach builds upon hydrographics, a technique to transfer pigments printed on a sheet of polymer onto curved surfaces. [...]

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Reforming Shapes for Material-aware Fabrication (ACM SGP 2015)
Yong-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, and Niloy J. Mitra
In this work, we propose a novel data-driven reforming i.e., reshaping algorithm that adapts an input multi-component model for a target fabrication material. The algorithm adapts both the part geometry and the inter-part topology of the input shape to better align with material-aware fabrication requirements. [...]

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Hybrid craft: showcase of physical and digital integration of design and craft skills (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Amit Zoran
This article introduces the Hybrid Craft exhibition, positioning 15 hybrid projects in the context of today's Maker culture. Each project demonstrates a unique integration of contemporary making practice with traditional craft. The presenters in the show represent a wide range of professional backgrounds: independent makers, students and teachers, designers associated with research institutes, and commercial organizations. [...]

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MultiFab: a machine vision assisted platform for multi-material 3D printing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Pitchaya Sitthi-Amorn, Javier E. Ramos, Yuwang Wangy, Joyce Kwan, Justin Lan, Wenshou Wang, and Wojciech Matusik
We have developed a multi-material 3D printing platform that is high-resolution, low-cost, and extensible. The key part of our platform is an integrated machine vision system. This system allows for self-calibration of printheads, 3D scanning, and a closed-feedback loop to enable print corrections. [...]

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Fab Forms: Customizable Objects For Fabrication With Validity And Geometry Caching (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Maria Shugrina, Ariel Shamir and Wojciech Matusik
We define Fab Form as any design representation that lends itself to interactive customization by a novice user, while remaining valid and manufacturable. We propose a method to achieve these Fab Form requirements for general parametric designs tagged with a general set of automated validity tests and a small number of parameters exposed to the casual user. Our solution separates Fab Form evaluation into a precomputation stage and a runtime stage. [...]

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Augmented Airbrush for Computer Aided Painting (CAP) (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Roy Shilkrot, Pattie Maes, Joseph A. Paradiso, and Amit Zoran
We present an augmented airbrush that allows novices to experience the art of spray painting. Inspired by the thriving field of smart tools, our handheld device uses 6DOF tracking, augmentation of the airbrush trigger, and a specialized algorithm to restrict the application of paint to a preselected reference image. [...]

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Elastic textures for additive fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Julian Panetta, Qingnan Zhou, Luigi Malomo, Nico Pietroni, Paolo Cignoni, and Denis Zorin
We introduce elastic textures: a set of parametric, tileable, printable, cubic patterns achieving a broad range of isotropic elastic material properties: the softest pattern is over a thousand times softer than the stiffest, and the Poisson's ratios range from below zero to nearly 0.5. Using a combinatorial search over topologies followed by shape optimization, we explore a wide space of truss-like, symmetric 3D patterns to obtain a small family. [...]

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OmniAD: data-driven omni-directional aerodynamics (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Tobias Martin, Nobuyuki Umetani, and Bernd Bickel
This paper introduces "OmniAD," a novel data-driven pipeline to model and acquire the aerodynamics of three-dimensional rigid objects. Traditionally, aerodynamics are examined through elaborate wind tunnel experiments or expensive fluid dynamics computations, and are only measured for a small number of discrete wind directions. [...]

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LinkEdit: interactive linkage editing using symbolic kinematics (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Moritz Bächer, Stelian Coros, and Bernhard Thomaszewski
Articulated deformable characters are widespread in computer animation. Unfortunately, we lack methods for their automatic fabrication using modern additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. We propose a method that takes a skinned mesh as input, then estimates a fabricatable single-material model that approximates the 3D kinematics of the corresponding virtual articulated character in a piecewise linear manner. [...]

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Computational design of metallophone contact sounds (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Gaurav Bharaj, David I. W. Levin, James Tompkin, Yun Fei, Hanspeter Pfister, Wojciech Matusik, and Changxi Zheng
Metallophones such as glockenspiels produce sounds in response to contact. Building these instruments is a complicated process, limiting their shapes to well-understood designs such as bars. We automatically optimize the shape of arbitrary 2D and 3D objects through deformation and perforation to produce sounds when struck which match user-supplied frequency and amplitude spectra. [...]

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Pushing the Limits of 3D Color Printing: Error Diffusion with Translucent Materials (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Alan Brunton, Can Ates Arikan, and Philipp Urban
In this article, we propose an error diffusion halftoning approach to achieve full color with multi-jet printers, which operates on multiple isosurfaces or layers within the object. We propose a novel traversal algorithm for voxel surfaces, which allows the transfer of existing error diffusion algorithms from 2D printing. The resulting prints faithfully reproduce colors, color gradients and fine-scale details. [...]

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Microstructures to control elasticity in 3D printing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Christian Schumacher, Bernd Bickel, Jan Rys, Steve Marschner, Chiara Daraio, and Markus Gross
We propose a method for fabricating deformable objects with spatially varying elasticity using 3D printing. Using a single, relatively stiff printer material, our method designs an assembly of small-scale microstructures that have the effect of a softer material at the object scale, with properties depending on the microstructure used in each part of the object. We build on work in the area of metamaterials, using numerical optimization to design tiled microstructures with desired properties, but with the key difference that our method designs families of related structures that can be interpolated to smoothly vary the material properties over a wide range. [...]

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Dapper: decompose-and-pack for 3D printing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2015)
Xuelin Chen, Hao Zhang, Jinjie Lin, Ruizhen Hu, Lin Lu, Qixing Huang, Bedrich Benes, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen
We present Dapper, a global optimization algorithm for the DAP problem which can be applied to both powder- and FDM-based 3D printing. The solution search is top-down and iterative. Starting with a coarse decomposition of the input shape into few initial parts, we progressively pack a pile in the printing volume, by iteratively docking parts, possibly while introducing cuts, onto the pile. [...]

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MetaMorphe: Designing Expressive 3D Models for Digital Fabrication (ACM Creativity and Cognition 2015)
Cesar Torres and Eric Paulos
We introduce MetaMorphe, a novel digital fabrication framework that uses a common web-programming metaphor to enable users to easily transform static 3D models into re-formed, re-made, and re-imagined customized personal artifacts. We demonstrate the compatibility of MetaMorphe with three well-established design interfaces, direction manipulation, scripted-CAD, and generative design. [...]

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Acoustruments: Passive, Acoustically-Driven Interactive Controls for Hand Held Devices (ACM CHI 2015)
Gierad Laput, Eric Brockmeyer, Scott E. Hudson, Chris Harrison.
We introduce Acoustruments: low-cost, passive, and powerless mechanisms, made from plastic, that can bring rich, tangible functionality to handheld devices. Through a structured exploration, we identified an expansive vocabulary of design primitives, providing building blocks for the construction of tangible interfaces utilizing smartphones’ existing audio functionality. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
3D Printing Pneumatic Device Controls with Variable Activation Force Capabilities (ACM CHI 2015)
Marynel Vázquez, Eric Brockmeyer, Ruta Desai, Chris Harrison, and Scott E. Hudson
We explore 3D printing physical controls whose tactile response can be manipulated programmatically through pneumatic actuation. We introduce and discuss a series of example 3D printed pneumatic controls, which demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. This includes conventional controls, such as buttons, knobs and sliders, but also extends to domains such as toys and deformable interfaces. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Lamello: Passive Acoustic Sensing for Tangible Input Components (ACM CHI 2015)
Valkyrie Savage, Andrew Head, Björn Hartmann, Dan B. Goldman, Gautham Mysore, and Wilmot Li
We describe Lamello, an approach for creating tangible input components that recognize user interaction via passive acoustic sensing. Lamello employs comb-like structures with varying-length tines at interaction points (e.g., along slider paths). Our main contributions are in the co-design of the tine structures, information encoding schemes, and audio analysis. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Platener: Low-Fidelity Fabrication of 3D Objects by Substituting 3D Print with Laser-Cut Plates (ACM CHI 2015)
Dustin Beyer, Serafima Gurevich, Stefanie Mueller, Hsiang-Ting Chen, and Patrick Baudisch
This paper presents Platener, a system that allows quickly fabricating intermediate design iterations of 3D models, a process also known as low-fidelity fabrication. Platener achieves its speed-up by extracting straight and curved plates from the 3D model and substituting them with laser cut parts of the same size and thickness. Only the regions that are of relevance to the current design iteration are executed as full-detail 3D prints. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
D-Coil: A Hands-on Approach to Digital 3D Models Design (ACM CHI 2015)
Huaishu Peng, Amit Zoran, and François Guimbretière
We introduce D-Coil, a new digital 3D modeling approach using wax coiling to bring tangibility to the design of digital models. After defining a shape to extrude, the users follow the lead of a hand-held actuated extruder to instantiate the actual extrusion using wax. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video
Low-Fidelity Fabrication: Speeding up Design Iteration of 3D Objects (ACM CHI 2015)
Stefanie Mueller, Dustin Beyer, Tobias Mohr, Serafima Gurevich, Alexander Teibrich, Lisa Pfistere, Kerstin Guenther, Johannes Frohnhofen, Hsiang-Ting Chen, Patrick Baudisch, Sangha Im, and François Guimbretière
Low-fidelity fabrication systems speed up rapid prototyping by printing intermediate versions of a prototype as fast, low-fidelity previews. Only the final version is fabricated as a full high-fidelity 3D print. This allows designers to iterate more quickly-achieving a better design in less time. [...]
DOI     Paper     Video     Page
A Layered Fabric 3D Printer for Soft Interactive Objects (ACM CHI 2015)
Huaishu Peng, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott E. Hudson, and James McCann
We present a new type of 3D printer that can form precise, but soft and deformable 3D objects from layers of off-the-shelf fabric. Our printer employs an approach where a sheet of fabric forms each layer of a 3D object. The printer cuts this sheet along the 2D contour of the layer using a laser cutter and then bonds it to previously printed layers using a heat sensitive adhesive. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Scotty: Relocating Physical Objects Across Distances Using Destructive Scanning, Encryption, and 3D Printing (ACM TEI 2015)
Stefanie Mueller, Martin Fritzsche, Jan Kossmann, Maximilian Schneider, Jonathan Striebel, and Patrick Baudisch
We present a simple self-contained appliance that allows relocating inanimate physical objects across distance. Each unit consists of an off-the-shelf 3D printer that we have extended with a 3-axis milling machine, a camera, and a micro-controller for encryption/decryption and transmission. Users see the object appear layer-by-layer on the receiver side as it disappears layer-by-layer at the sender side. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
SPATA: Spatio-Tangible Tools for Fabrication-Aware Design (ACM TEI 2015)
Christian Weichel, Jason Alexander, Abhijit Karnik, and Hans Gellersen
SPATA is the digital adaptation of two spatial measurement tools, that explores their closer integration into virtual design environments. We adapt two of the traditional measurement tools: calipers and protractors. Both tools can measure, transfer, and present size and angle. Their close integration into different design environments makes tasks more fluid and convenient. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video    


Everyday making: identifying future uses for 3D printing in the home (ACM DIS 2014)
Rita Shewbridge, Amy Hurst, and Shaun K. Kane
To explore the potential uses of 3D printers and other fabrication devices in the home, we conducted a study in which 10 households (with 28 individuals) kept a faux 3D printer in their homes for four weeks. Participants kept a log of items that they would want to print, and completed a series of design probes. We found that participants' use of the fabrication tools involved three activities: replicating existing objects, modifying and customizing existing objects, and creating new custom objects. Our study also provides insights on the types of objects that individuals wish to create, and how the faux 3D printer was situated in our participants' homes. [...]

Sensing touch using resistive graphs (ACM DIS 2014)
David Holman, Nicholas Fellion, and Roel Vertegaal
In early design, instrumenting an object with touch sensing capability, especially one with complex surface geometry, can be problematic. In this paper, we show how resistive graph patterns--or resigraphs--can be used to quickly fabricate multi-touch sensors tailored to an object's shape. In very early ideation, resigraphs can be drawn using conductive ink. In later refinements they can be silk-screened or laser cut from off-the-shelf materials. A resigraph uses a commonly available microprocessor (e.g. Arduino), re-quires only three wires, and enables touch input on non-planar and non-developable surfaces. [...]

Leather as a material for crafting interactive and physical artifacts (ACM DIS 2014)
Vasiliki Tsaknaki, Ylva Fernaeus, and Mischa Schaub
In this paper, we present a series of small scale explorations of leather, first as skin close interfaces for physical engagement, and secondly in terms of crafting using hand tools and a laser cutter. We reflect on our experiences along these two strands and discuss future possibilities of leather as a rich material for providing new types of interactive experiences. By discussing emerging topics related to traditional crafting processes and contemporary rapid fabrication with this material, we find a great potential of merging such processes and tools for future interaction design settings. [...]

The Wise Chisel: The Rise of the Smart Handheld Tool (IEEE Pervasive Computing 2014)
Amit Zoran, Roy Shilkrot, Pragun Goyal, Pattie Maes, Joseph A. Paradiso
Here, the authors offer a definition for smart handheld tools, discuss the tools' origins and motivation, and present a survey of prominent work by themselves and others in disciplines such as fabrication, painting, printing, and maintenance. They also discuss their experiences operating in this new territory and conclude with a vision of a hybrid creative practice: smart handheld instruments that enable synergetic cooperation with human skill, personal style, and computational assistance that results in accuracy, guidance, and protection for users. [...]

DOI     Page
Field-Aligned Mesh Joinery (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2014)
Paolo Cignoni, Nico Pietroni, Luigi Malomo, Roberto Scopigno
We represent an input geometry as a set of planar pieces arranged to compose a rigid structure, by exploiting an efficient slit mechanism. Since slices are planar, to fabricate them a standard 2D cutting system is enough. We automatically arrange slices according to a smooth cross field defined over the surface. Cross fields allow representing global features that char- acterize the appearance of the shape. Slice placement conforms to specific manufacturing constraints. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Creating works-like prototypes of mechanical objects (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2014)
Bongjin Koo, Wilmot Li, JiaXian Yao, Maneesh Agrawala, and Niloy J. Mitra
Designers often create physical works-like prototypes early in the product development cycle to explore possible mechanical architectures for a design. Yet, creating functional prototypes requires time and expertise, which discourages rapid design iterations. Designers must carefully specify part and joint parameters to ensure that parts move and fit and together in the intended manner. We present an interactive system that streamlines the process by allowing users to annotate rough 3D models with high-level functional relationships (e.g., part A fits inside part B). [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
A series of tubes: adding interactivity to 3D prints using internal pipes (ACM UIST 2014)
Valkyrie Savage, Ryan Schmidt, Tovi Grossman, George Fitzmaurice, and Björn Hartmann
We investigate how 3D models can be modified to facilitate the creation of interactive objects that offer dynamic input and output. We introduce a general technique for supporting the rapid prototyping of interactivity by removing interior material from 3D models to form internal pipes. We describe this new design space of pipes for interaction design, where variables include openings, path constraints, topologies, and inserted media. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
FlatFitFab: interactive modeling with planar sections (ACM UIST 2014)
James McCrae, Nobuyuki Umetani, and Karan Singh
We present a comprehensive system to author planar section structures, common in art and engineering. A study on how planar section assemblies are imagined and drawn guide our design principles: planar sections are best drawn in-situ, with little foreshortening, orthogonal to intersecting planar sections, exhibiting regularities between planes and contours. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
WirePrint: 3D printed previews for fast prototyping (ACM UIST 2014)
Stefanie Mueller, Sangha Im, Serafima Gurevich, Alexander Teibrich, Lisa Pfisterer, François Guimbretière, and Patrick Baudisch
With WirePrint, we propose to instead print low-fidelity wireframe previews in the early stages of the design process. Wireframe previews are 3D prints in which surfaces have been replaced with a wireframe mesh. Since wireframe previews are to scale and represent the overall shape of the 3D object, they allow users to quickly verify key aspects of their 3D design, such as the ergonomic fit. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Pteromys: interactive design and optimization of free-formed free-flight model airplanes (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Nobuyuki Umetani, Yuki Koyama, Ryan Schmidt, and Takeo Igarashi
This paper introduces novel interactive techniques for designing original hand-launched free-flight glider airplanes which can actually fly. We present a compact and efficient representation of glider aerodynamics that can be fit to real-world conditions using a data-driven method. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Computational design of linkage-based characters (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Bernhard Thomaszewski, Stelian Coros, Damien Gauge, Vittorio Megaro, Eitan Grinspun, and Markus Gross
We present a design system for linkage-based characters, combining form and function in an aesthetically-pleasing manner. Linkage-based character design exhibits a mix of discrete and continuous problems, making for a highly unintuitive design space that is difficult to navigate without assistance. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
High-contrast computational caustic design (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Yuliy Schwartzburg, Romain Testuz, Andrea Tagliasacchi, and Mark Pauly
We present a new algorithm for computational caustic design. Our algorithm solves for the shape of a transparent object such that the refracted light paints a desired caustic image on a receiver screen. We introduce an optimal transport formulation to establish a correspondence between the input geometry and the unknown target shape. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Computational Light Routing: 3D Printed Optical Fibers for Sensing and Display (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Thiago Pereira, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Wojciech Matusik
We introduce automatic fiber design algorithms together with new manufacturing techniques to route light between two arbitrary surfaces. Our implicit algorithm optimizes light transmission by minimizing fiber curvature and maximizing fiber separation while respecting constraints such as fiber arrival angle. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Spin-It: Optimizing Moment of Inertia for Spinnable Objects (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Moritz Bächer, Emily Whiting, Bernd Bickel, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung
Spinning tops and yo-yos have long fascinated cultures around the world with their unexpected, graceful motions that seemingly elude gravity. We present an algorithm to generate designs for spinning objects by optimizing rotational dynamics properties. As input, the user provides a solid 3D model and a desired axis of rotation. Our approach then modifies the mass distribution such that the principal directions of the moment of inertia align with the target rotation frame. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Branching support structures for 3D printing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Ryan Schmidt and Nobuyuki Umetani
Most 3D printing processes can be modeled by an incremental stacking of thin, flexible layers. In this case, it is apparent that for complex shapes, some stacks will be "floating" in mid-air unless they are supported from below by additional material. Similarly if a slice is much larger than the one below it, it will droop unless supported. These areas are called overhangs [Evans 2012], and most 3D printing software provides automated generation of some kind of support structure. However, the support is waste, of both time and material, and this waste should be minimized. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Design and fabrication by example (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Adriana Schulz, Ariel Shamir, David I. W. Levin, Pitchaya Sitthi-amorn, and Wojciech Matusik
We propose a data-driven method for designing 3D models that can be fabricated. First, our approach converts a collection of expert-created designs to a dataset of parameterized design templates that includes all information necessary for fabrication. The templates are then used in an interactive design system to create new fabri-cable models in a design-by-example manner. A simple interface allows novice users to choose template parts from the database, change their parameters, and combine them to create new models. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Build-to-last: strength to weight 3D printed objects (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Lin Lu, Andrei Sharf, Haisen Zhao, Yuan Wei, Qingnan Fan, Xuelin Chen, Yann Savoye, Changhe Tu, Daniel Cohen-Or, and Baoquan Chen
We introduce a hollowing optimization algorithm based on the concept of honeycomb-cells structure. Honeycombs structures are known to be of minimal material cost while providing strength in tension. We utilize the Voronoi diagram to compute irregular honeycomb-like volume tessellations which define the inner structure. We formulate our problem as a strength--to--weight optimization and cast it as mutually finding an optimal interior tessellation and its maximal hollowing subject to relieve the interior stress. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Bridging the gap: automated steady scaffoldings for 3D printing (ACM SIGGRAPH 2014)
Jérémie Dumas, Jean Hergel, and Sylvain Lefebvre
We propose to exploit the ability of FFF printers to print bridges across gaps. Since bridges are always supported by pillars at their extremities, they are both stronger and more stable than hierarchical tree structures. The result is an automated support generation technique using little material while ensuring fine surface quality and stability during the printing process. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
The Hybrid Artisans: A Case Study in Smart Tools (ACM CHI 2014, ACM ToCHI 2014)
Amit Zoran, Roy Shilkrot, Suranga Nanyakkara, and Joseph Paradiso
We present an approach to combining digital fabrication and craft, demonstrating a hybrid interaction paradigm where human and machine work in synergy. The FreeD is a hand-held digital milling device, monitored by a computer while preserving the makers freedom to manipulate the work in many creative ways. [...]

DOI     Video     Page
MixFab: a mixed-reality environment for personal fabrication (ACM CHI 2014)
Christian Weichel, Manfred Lau, David Kim, Nicolas Villar, and Hans W. Gellersen
In this paper, we introduce MixFab, a mixed-reality environment for personal fabrication that lowers the barrier for users to engage in personal fabrication. Users design objects in an immersive augmented reality environment, interact with virtual objects in a direct gestural manner and can introduce existing physical objects effortlessly into their designs. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
faBrickation: fast 3D printing of functional objects by integrating construction kit building blocks (ACM CHI 2014)
Stefanie Mueller, Tobias Mohr, Kerstin Guenther, Johannes Frohnhofen, and Patrick Baudisch
We present a new approach to rapid prototyping of functional objects, such as the body of a head-mounted display. The key idea is to save 3D printing time by automatically substituting sub-volumes with standard building blocks'in our case Lego bricks. When making the body for a head-mounted display, for example, getting the optical path right is paramount. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Printing Teddy Bears: A Technique for 3D Printing of Soft Interactive Objects (ACM CHI 2014)
Scott E. Hudson
This paper considers the design, construction, and example use of a new type of 3D printer which fabricates three-dimensional objects from soft fibers (wool and wool blend yarn). The resulting objects recreate the geometric forms specified in the solid models which specify them, but are soft and flexible -- somewhat reminiscent in character to hand knitted materials. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
PackMerger: A 3D Print Volume Optimizer (EUROGRAPHICS 2014)
Bedrich Benes, Juraj Vanek, Jorge A. Garcia Galicia, Radomir Mech, Nathan A. Carr, Ondrej Stava, Gavin S. P. Miller.
Our PackMerger framework converts the input 3D watertight mesh into a shell by hollowing its inner parts. The shell is then divided into segments. The location of splits is controlled based on several parameters, including the size of the connection areas or volume of each segment. The pieces are then tightly packed using optimization. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video    
Interlocking pieces for printing tangible cultural heritage replicas (EUROGRAPHICS 2014)
Giuseppe Alemanno, Paolo Cignoni, Nico Pietroni, Federico Ponchio, Roberto Scopigno
We propose a technique to decompose a 3D digital shape into a set of interlocking pieces that are easy to be manufactured and assembled. The pieces are designed so that they can be represented as a simple height field and, therefore, they can be manufactured by common 3D printers without the usage of supporting material. The removal of the supporting material is often a burdensome task and may eventually damage the surface of the printed object. [...]

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Dual-color mixing for fused deposition modeling printers (EUROGRAPHICS 2014)
Tim Reiner, Nathan Carr, Radomír Mêch, Ondrej St'ava, Carsten Dachsbacher, and Gavin Miller
In this work we detail a method that leverages the two color heads of recent low-end fused deposition modeling FDM 3D printers to produce continuous tone imagery. The key insight behind our work is that by applying small geometric offsets, tone can be varied without the need to switch color print heads within a single layer. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Clever Support: Efficient Support Structure Generation for Digital Fabrication (EUROGRAPHICS 2014)
Juraj Vanek, Jorge A. G. Galicia, and Bedrich Benes
We present a novel, geometry-based approach that minimizes the support material while providing sufficient support. Using our approach, the input 3D model is first oriented into a position with minimal area that requires support. Then the points in this area that require support are detected. [...]

DOI     Paper


Olivier Rouiller, Bernd Bickel, Wojciech Matusik, Marc Alexa, and Jan Kautz
A new method fabricates custom surface reflectance and spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (svBRDFs). Researchers optimize a microgeometry for a range of normal distribution functions and simulate the resulting surface's effective reflectance. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Cost-effective printing of 3D objects with skin-frame structures (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2013)
Weiming Wang, Tuanfeng Y. Wang, Zhouwang Yang, Ligang Liu, Xin Tong, Weihua Tong, Jiansong Deng, Falai Chen, and Xiuping Liu
In this paper, we present an automatic solution to design a skin-frame structure for the purpose of reducing the material cost in printing a given 3D object. The frame structure is designed by an optimization scheme which significantly reduces material volume and is guaranteed to be physically stable, geometrically approximate, and printable. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Cross-sectional structural analysis for 3D printing optimization (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2013)
Nobuyuki Umetani and Ryan Schmidt
We propose a novel cross-sectional structural analysis technique that efficiently detects critical stress inside a 3D object. We slice the object into cross-sections and compute stress based on bending momentum equilibrium. Unlike traditional approaches based on finite element methods, our method doesn’t require a volumetric mesh or solution of linear systems, enabling interactive analysis speed. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Designing and fabricating mechanical automata from mocap sequences (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2013)
Duygu Ceylan, Wilmot Li, Niloy J. Mitra, Maneesh Agrawala, and Mark Pauly
We propose an automatic algorithm that takes a motion sequence of a humanoid character and generates the design for a mechanical figure that approximates the input motion when driven with a single input crank. Our approach has two stages. The motion approximation stage computes a motion that approximates the input sequence as closely as possible while remaining compatible with the geometric and motion constraints of the mechanical parts in our design. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Cost-effective printing of 3D objects with skin-frame structures (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2013)
Weiming Wang, Tuanfeng Y. Wang, Zhouwang Yang, Ligang Liu, Xin Tong, Weihua Tong, Jiansong Deng, Falai Chen, and Xiuping Liu
3D printers have become popular in recent years and enable fabrication of custom objects for home users. However, the cost of the material used in printing remains high. In this paper, we present an automatic solution to design a skin-frame structure for the purpose of reducing the material cost in printing a given 3D object. The frame structure is designed by an optimization scheme which significantly reduces material volume and is guaranteed to be physically stable, geometrically approximate, and printable. Furthermore, the number of struts is minimized by solving an l0 sparsity optimization. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Human-computer interaction for hybrid carving (ACM UIST 2013)
Amit Zoran, Roy Shilkrot, and Joseph Paradiso
In this paper we explore human-computer interaction for carving, building upon our previous work with the FreeD digital sculpting device. We contribute a new tool design (FreeD V2), with a novel set of interaction techniques for the fabrication of static models: personalized tool paths, manual overriding, and physical merging of virtual models. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Sauron: embedded single-camera sensing of printed physical user interfaces (ACM UIST 2013)
Valkyrie Savage, Colin Chang, and Björn Hartmann
We present Sauron, an embedded machine vision-based system for sensing human input on physical controls like buttons, sliders, and joysticks. With Sauron, designers attach a single camera with integrated ring light to a printed prototype. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
PacCAM: material capture and interactive 2D packing for efficient material usage on CNC cutting machines (ACM UIST 2013)
Daniel Saakes, Thomas Cambazard, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
In this paper, we introduce PacCAM, a system for packing 2D parts within a given source material for fabrication using 2D cutting machines. Our solution combines computer vision to capture the source material shape with a user interface that incorporates 2D rigid body simulation and snapping. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Hybrid basketry: interweaving digital practice within contemporary craft (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Amit Zoran
In this paper, the author argues for merging these two distinct traditions. To that end, he developed hybrid basketry, a medium where 3D-printed structures are shaped to allow the growth and development of hand-woven patterns. While the 3D-printed plastic elements contribute the aesthetics of the digital curvatures and manifolds, the hand-woven reed, jute, and canvas fibers infuse the baskets with a unique organic appeal. [...]

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OpenFab: a programmable pipeline for multi-material fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Kiril Vidimce, Szu-Po Wang, Jonathan Ragan-Kelley, and Wojciech Matusik
We present OpenFab, a programmable pipeline for synthesis of multi-material 3D printed objects that is inspired by RenderMan and modern GPU pipelines. The pipeline supports procedural evaluation of geometric detail and material composition, using shader-like fablets, allowing models to be specified easily and efficiently. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Computational Design of Mechanical Characters (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Stelian Coros, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Gioacchino Noris, Shinjiro Sueda, Moira Forberg, Robert W. Sumner, Wojciech Matusik, and Bernd Bickel
We present an interactive design system that allows non-expert users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user iteratively creates an animation by sketching motion curves indicating how different parts of the character should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. [...]

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Spec2Fab: a reducer-tuner model for translating specifications to 3D prints (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Desai Chen, David I. W. Levin, Piotr Didyk, Pitchaya Sitthi-Amorn, and Wojciech Matusik
In this paper, we propose an abstraction mechanism that simplifies the design, development, implementation, and reuse of these algorithms. Our solution relies on two new data structures: a reducer tree that efficiently parameterizes the space of material assignments and a tuner network that describes the optimization process used to compute material arrangement. [...]

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Computational design of actuated deformable characters (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Mélina Skouras, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Stelian Coros, Bernd Bickel, and Markus Gross
We present a method for fabrication-oriented design of actuated deformable characters that allows a user to automatically create physical replicas of digitally designed characters using rapid manufacturing technologies. Given a deformable character and a set of target poses as input, our method computes a small set of actuators along with their locations on the surface and optimizes the internal material distribution such that the resulting character exhibits the desired deformation behavior. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Make it stand: balancing shapes for 3D fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Romain Prevost, Emily Whiting, Sylvain Lefebvre, and Olga Sorkine-Hornung
We propose to assist users in producing novel, properly balanced designs by interactively deforming an existing model. We formulate balance optimization as an energy minimization, improving stability by modifying the volume of the object, while preserving its surface details. This takes place during interactive editing: the user cooperates with our optimizer towards the end result. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Worst-case structural analysis (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Qingnan Zhou, Julian Panetta, and Denis Zorin
We present a method that would identify structural problems in objects designed for 3D printing based on geometry and material properties only, without specific assumptions on loads and manual load setup. We solve a constrained optimization problem to determine the "worst" load distribution for a shape that will cause high local stress or large deformations. While in its general form this optimization has a prohibitively high computational cost, we demonstrate that an approximate method makes it possible to solve the problem rapidly for a broad range of printed models. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Enchanted scissors: a scissor interface for support in cutting and interactive fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Mayu M. Yamashita, Junichi Yamaoka, and Yasuaki Kakehi
We present an approach to support basic and complex cutting processes through an interactive fabrication experience [Willis et al. 2011]. Our system, enchanted scissors, is a digitally controlled pair of scissors (Figure 1). It restricts areas that can be cut while requiring the user's exertion of force and decision to execute each cut. Therefore, unlike a completely digitalized cutting device, the user can freely apply improvisations within the permitted areas in real-time.[...]

InfraStructs: fabricating information inside physical objects for imaging in the terahertz region (ACM SIGGRAPH 2013)
Karl D. D. Willis and Andrew D. Wilson
We introduce InfraStructs, material-based tags that embed information inside digitally fabricated objects for imaging in the Terahertz region. Terahertz imaging can safely penetrate many common materials, opening up new possibilities for encoding hidden information as part of the fabrication process. We outline the design, fabrication, imaging, and data processing steps to fabricate information inside physical objects. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
FreeD: a freehand digital sculpting tool (ACM CHI 2013)
Amit Zoran and Joseph A. Paradiso
In this paper, we present an approach to combining digital fabrication and craft, emphasizing the user experience. While many researchers strive to enable makers to design and produce 3D objects, our research seeks to present a new fabrication approach to make unique, one-of-a-kind artifacts. To that end, we developed the FreeD, a hand-held digital milling device. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
LaserOrigami: laser-cutting 3D objects (ACM CHI 2013)
Stefanie Mueller, Bastian Kruck, and Patrick Baudisch
We present LaserOrigami, a rapid prototyping system that produces 3D objects using a laser cutter. LaserOrigami is substantially faster than traditional 3D fabrication techniques such as 3D printing and unlike traditional laser cutting the resulting 3D objects require no manual assembly. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Fabrication-aware Design with Intersecting Planar Pieces (EUROGRAPHICS 2013)
Yuliy Schwartzburg, and Mark Pauly
We propose a computational design approach to generate 3D models composed of interlocking planar pieces. We show how intricate 3D forms can be created by sliding the pieces into each other along straight slits, leading to a simple construction that does not require glue, screws, or other means of support. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Computing and Fabricating Multiplanar Models (EUROGRAPHICS 2013)
Desai Chen, Pitchaya Sitthi-amorn, Justin T. Lan, and Wojciech Matusik
Our shape approximation algorithm iteratively assigns mesh faces to planar segments and slowly deforms these faces towards corresponding segments. This approach ensures that the output for a given closed mesh is still a closed mesh and avoids introducing self-intersections. [...]

DOI     Paper     Video     Page
Computational Fabrication and Display of Material Appearance (EUROGRAPHICS 2013)
Aatthias B. Hullin, Ivo Ihrke, Wolfgang Heidrich, Tim Weyrich, Gerwin Damberg and Martin Fuchs
In this report, we summarize research efforts from the worlds of fabrication display, and categorize the different approaches into a common taxonomy. We believe that this report can serve as a basis for systematic exploration of the design space in future research. [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Orthogonal slicing for additive manufacturing (COMPUTER AND GRAPHICS 2013)
Kristian Hildebrand, Bernd Bickel, and Marc Alexa
Our approach then finds a compromise between modeling each part of the shape individually in the best possible direction and using one direction for the whole shape part. In particular, we compute an orthogonal basis and consider only the three basis vectors as slice normals (i.e. fabrication directions). [...]

DOI     Paper     Page
Enclosed: a component-centric interface for designing prototype enclosures (ACM TEI 2013)
Christian Weichel, Manfred Lau, and Hans Gellersen
This paper explores the problem of designing enclosures (or physical cases) that are needed for prototyping electronic devices. We present a novel interface that uses electronic components as handles for designing the 3D shape of the enclosure. [...]

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3D-printing of non-assembly, articulated models (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2012)
Jacques Calì, Dan A. Calian, Cristina Amati, Rebecca Kleinberger, Anthony Steed, Jan Kautz, and Tim Weyrich
In this paper, we propose a method for converting 3D models into printable, functional, non-assembly models with internal friction. To this end, we have designed an intuitive work-flow that takes an appropriately rigged 3D model, automatically fits novel 3D-printable and posable joints, and provides an interface for specifying rotational constraints. We show a number of results for different articulated models, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method. [...]

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Chopper: partitioning models into 3D-printable parts (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2012)
Linjie Luo, Ilya Baran, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Wojciech Matusik
3D printing technology is rapidly maturing and becoming ubiquitous. One of the remaining obstacles to wide-scale adoption is that the object to be printed must fit into the working volume of the 3D printer. We propose a framework, called Chopper, to decompose a large 3D object into smaller parts so that each part fits into the printing volume. These parts can then be assembled to form the original object. [...]

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Motion-guided mechanical toy modeling (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2012)
Lifeng Zhu, Weiwei Xu, John Snyder, Yang Liu, Guoping Wang, and Baining Guo
We introduce a new method to synthesize mechanical toys solely from the motion of their features. The designer specifies the geometry and a time-varying rotation and translation of each rigid feature component. Our algorithm automatically generates a mechanism assembly located in a box below the feature base that produces the specified motion. Parts in the assembly are selected from a parameterized set including belt-pulleys, gears, crank-sliders, quick-returns, and various cams (snail, ellipse, and double-ellipse). [...]

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Interactive Construction: Interactive Fabrication of Functional Mechanical Devices (ACM UIST 2012)
Stefanie Mueller, Pedro Lopes, and Patrick Baudisch
Constructable is an interactive drafting table that produces precise physical output in every step. Users interact by drafting directly on the workpiece using a hand-held laser pointer. The system tracks the pointer, beautifies its path, and implements its effect by cutting the workpiece using a fast high-powered laser cutter. [...]

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Midas: fabricating custom capacitive touch sensors to prototype interactive objects (ACM UIST 2012)
Valkyrie Savage, Xiaohan Zhang, and Björn Hartmann
An increasing number of consumer products include user interfaces that rely on touch input. While digital fabrication techniques such as 3D printing make it easier to prototype the shape of custom devices, adding interactivity to such prototypes remains a challenge for many designers. We introduce Midas, a software and hardware toolkit to support the design, fabrication, and programming of flexible capacitive touch sensors for interactive objects. [...]

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Printed optics: 3D printing of embedded optical elements for interactive devices (ACM UIST 2012)
Karl Willis, Eric Brockmeyer, Scott Hudson, and Ivan Poupyrev
An increasing number of consumer products include user interfaces that rely on touch input. While digital fabrication techniques such as 3D printing make it easier to prototype the shape of custom devices, adding interactivity to such prototypes remains a challenge for many designers. We introduce Midas, a software and hardware toolkit to support the design, fabrication, and programming of flexible capacitive touch sensors for interactive objects. [...]

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Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects (ACM SIGGRAPH 2012)
Ondrej Stava, Juraj Vanek, Bedrich Benes, Nathan Carr, and Radomìr Mech
We developed a system that addresses the printability issues by providing automatic detection and correction of the problematic cases. Our system detects potential problematic cases by considering gravity and gripping forces by evaluating most possible places on the object where it can be held. [...]

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Fabricating articulated characters from skinned meshes (ACM SIGGRAPH 2012)
Moritz Bächer, Bernd Bickel, Doug L. James, and Hanspeter Pfister
Articulated deformable characters are widespread in computer animation. Unfortunately, we lack methods for their automatic fabrication using modern additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. We propose a method that takes a skinned mesh as input, then estimates a fabricatable single-material model that approximates the 3D kinematics of the corresponding virtual articulated character in a piecewise linear manner. [...]

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Physical Face Cloning (ACM SIGGRAPH 2012)
Bernd Bickel, Peter Kaufmann, Mélina Skouras, Bernhard Thomaszewski, Derek Bradley, Thabo Beeler, Phil Jackson, Steve Marschner, Wojciech Matusik, and Markus Gross
We propose a complete process for designing, simulating, and fabricating synthetic skin for an animatronics character that mimics the face of a given subject and its expressions. The process starts with measuring the elastic properties of a material used to manufacture synthetic soft tissue. Given these measurements we use physics-based simulation to predict the behavior of a face when it is driven by the underlying robotic actuation. [...]

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Position-correcting tools for 2D digital fabrication (ACM SIGGRAPH 2012)
Alec Rivers, Ilan E. Moyer, and Frédo Durand
We propose a new approach to precise positioning of a tool that combines manual and automatic positioning: in our approach, the user coarsely positions a frame containing the tool in an approximation of the desired path, while the device tracks the frame's location and adjusts the position of the tool within the frame to correct the user's positioning error in real time. [...]

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Laser cooking: a novel culinary technique for dry heating using a laser cutter and vision technology (CEA 2012)
Kentaro Fukuchi, Kazuhiro Jo, Akifumi Tomiyama, Shunsuke Takao
We propose a novel cooking technology that uses a laser cutter as a dry-heating device. In general, dry-heat cooking heats the whole surface of an ingredient, while a laser cutter heats a small spot of the surface in a very short time. Our approach employs a computer-controlled laser cutter and a video image-processing technique to cook ingredients according to their shape and composition, allowing for new tastes, textures, decorations, and engraving unique identifiers to the ingredients. [...]

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DressUp: a 3D interface for clothing design with a physical mannequin (ACM TEI 2012)
Amy Wibowo, Daisuke Sakamoto, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
This paper introduces DressUp, a computerized system for designing dresses with 3D input using the form of the human body as a guide. It consists of a body-sized physical mannequin, a screen, and tangible prop tools for drawing in 3D on and around the mannequin. As the user draws, he/she modifies or creates pieces of digital cloth, which are displayed on a model of the mannequin on the screen. [...]

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Slices: a shape-proxy based on planar sections (ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2011)
James McCrae, Karan Singh, and Niloy J. Mitra
We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. [...]

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Sensitive Couture for Interactive Garment Editing and Modeling (ACM SIGGRAPH 2011)
Nobuyuki Umetani, Danny M. Kaufman, Takeo Igarashi, Eitan Grinspun.
We present a novel interactive tool for garment design that enables, for the first time, interactive bidirectional editing between 2D patterns and 3D high-fidelity simulated draped forms. This provides a continuous, interactive, and natural design modality in which 2D and 3D representations are simultaneously visible and seamlessly maintain correspondence. [...]

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Converting 3D furniture models to fabricatable parts and connectors (ACM SIGGRAPH 2011)
Manfred Lau, Akira Ohgawara, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
Although there is an abundance of 3D models available, most of them exist only in virtual simulation and are not immediately usable as physical objects in the real world. We solve the problem of taking as input a 3D model of a man-made object, and automatically generating the parts and connectors needed to build the corresponding physical object. We focus on furniture models, and we define formal grammars for IKEA cabinets and tables. We perform lexical analysis to identify the primitive parts of the 3D model. [...]

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GOAL-BASED CAUSTICS (EUROGRAPHICS 2011, Computer Graphics Forum)
Marios Papas, Wojciech Jarosz, Wenzel Jakob, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, Wojciech Matusik, Tim Weyrich.
We propose a novel system for designing and manufacturing surfaces that produce desired caustic images when illuminated by a light source. Our system is based on a nonnegative image decomposition using a set of possibly overlapping anisotropic Gaussian kernels. We utilize this decomposition to construct an array of continuous surface patches, each of which focuses light onto one of the Gaussian kernels, either through refraction or reflection. [...]

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Interactive fabrication: new interfaces for digital fabrication (TEI 2011)
Karl D.D. Willis, Cheng Xu, Kuan-Ju Wu, Golan Levin, and Mark D. Gross
We present a series of prototype devices that use real-time input to fabricate physical form: Interactive Fabrication. Our work maps out the problem space of real-time control for digital fabrication devices, and examines where alternative interfaces for digital fabrication are relevant. We conclude by reflecting upon the potential of interactive fabrication and outline a number of considerations for future research in this area. [...]

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SketchChair: an all-in-one chair design system for end users (ACM TEI 2011)
Greg Saul, Manfred Lau, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
SketchChair is an application that allows novice users to control the entire process of designing and building their own chairs. Chairs are designed using a simple 2D sketch-based interface and design validation tools, and are then fabricated from sheet materials, cut by a laser cutter or CNC milling machine. [...]

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CopyCAD: remixing physical objects with copy and paste from the real world (ACM UIST 2010)
Sean Follmer, David Carr, Emily Lovell, and Hiroshi Ishii
This paper introduces a novel technique for integrating geometry from physical objects into computer aided design (CAD) software. We allow users to copy arbitrary real world object geometry into 2D CAD designs at scale through the use of a camera/projector system. [...]

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Design and Fabrication of Materials with Desired Deformation Behavior (ACM SIGGRAPH 2010)
Bernd Bickel, Moritz Bächer, Miguel A. Otaduy, Hyunho Richard Lee, Hanspeter Pfister, Markus Gross, and Wojciech Matusik
This paper introduces a data-driven process for designing and fabricating materials with desired deformation behavior. Our process starts with measuring deformation properties of base materials. For each base material we acquire a set of example deformations, and we represent the material as a non-linear stress-strain relationship in a finite-element model. [...]

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Fabricating spatially-varying subsurface scattering (ACM SIGGRAPH 2010)
Yue Dong, Jiaping Wang, Fabio Pellacini, Xin Tong, and Baining Guo
In this paper, we present a complete solution for fabricating a material volume with a desired surface BSSRDF. We stack layers from a fixed set of manufacturing materials whose thickness is varied spatially to reproduce the heterogeneity of the input BSSRDF. [...]

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Physical Reproduction of Materials with Specified Subsurface Scattering (ACM SIGRAPH 2010)
Milos Hasan, Martin Fuchs, Wojciech Matusik, Hanspeter Pfister, and Szymon Rusinkiewicz
We describe a mathematical model that predicts the profiles of different stackings of base materials, at arbitrary thicknesses. In an inverse process, we can then specify a desired reflection profile and compute a layered composite material that best approximates it. Our algorithm efficiently searches the space of possible combinations of base materials, pruning unsatisfactory states imposed by physical constraints. We validate our process by producing both homogeneous and heterogeneous composites fabricated using a multi-material 3D printer. [...]

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Spatial sketch: bridging between movement & fabrication (ACM TEI 2010)
Karl D.D. Willis, Juncong Lin, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
This paper explores the rationale and details behind the development of the Spatial Sketch application, and presents our observations from user testing and a hands-on lamp shade design workshop. Finally we reflect upon the relevance of embodied forms of human computer interaction for use in digital fabrication. [...]

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Designing Custommade Metallophone with Concurrent Eigenanalysis (NIME 2010)
Nobuyuki Umetani, Kenshi Takayama, Jun Mitani, and Takeo Igarashi
We introduce an interactive interface for the custom design of metallophones. The shape of each plate must be determined in the design process so that the metallophone will produce the proper tone when struck with a mallet. Our system addresses this problem by running a concurrent numerical eigenanalysis during interactive geometry editing. [...]

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Fabricating microgeometry for custom surface reflectance (ACM SIGGRAPH 2009)
Tim Weyrich, Pieter Peers, Wojciech Matusik, and Szymon Rusinkiewicz
We propose a system for manufacturing physical surfaces that, in aggregate, exhibit a desired surface appearance. Our system begins with a user specification of a BRDF, or simply a highlight shape, and infers the required distribution of surface slopes. We demonstrate a variety of surfaces, ranging from reproductions of measured BRDFs to materials with unconventional highlights. [...]

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The ModelCraft framework: Capturing freehand annotations and edits to facilitate the 3D model design process using a digital pen (ACM CHI 2009, ACM ToCHI 2009)
Hyunyoung Song, François Guimbretière, and Hod Lipson
ModelCraft supports a wide range of operations on complex models, from editing a model to assembling multiple models, and offers physical tools to capture free-space input. Several interviews and a formal study with the potential users of our system proved the ModelCraft system useful. Our system is inexpensive, requires no tracking infrastructure or per object calibration, and we show how it could be extended seamlessly to use current 3D printing technology. [...]

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Interactive Cover Design Considering Physical Constraints (EUROGRAPHICS 2009)
Yuki Igarashi, Takeo Igarashi, and Hiromasa Suzuki
We developed an interactive system to design a customized cover for a given three-dimensional (3D) object such as a camera, teapot, or car. The system first computes the convex hull of the input geometry. The user segments it into several cloth patches by drawing on the 3D surface. [...]

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Plushie: an interactive design system for plush toys (ACM SIGGRAPH 2007)
Yuki Mori and Takeo Igarashi
We introduce Plushie, an interactive system that allows nonprofessional users to design their own original plush toys. To design a plush toy, one needs to construct an appropriate two-dimensional (2D) pattern. However, it is difficult for non-professional users to appropriately design a 2D pattern. [...]

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A compact factored representation of heterogeneous subsurface scattering (ACM SIGGRAPH 2006)
Pieter Peers, Karl vom Berge, Wojciech Matusik, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Jason Lawrence, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, and Philip Dutré
In this paper, we address the problem of acquiring and compactly representing the spatial component of heterogeneous subsurface scattering functions. We propose a material model based on matrix factorization that can be mapped onto arbitrary geometry, and, due to its compact form, can be incorporated into most visualization systems with little overhead. We present results of several real-world datasets that are acquired using a projector and a digital camera. [...]

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Making papercraft toys from meshes using strip-based approximate unfolding (ACM SIGGRAPH 2004)
Jun Mitani and Hiromasa Suzuki
We propose a new method for producing unfolded papercraft patterns of rounded toy animal figures from triangulated meshes by means of strip-based approximation. Although in principle a triangulated model can be unfolded simply by retaining as much as possible of its connectivity while checking for intersecting triangles in the unfolded plane, creating a pattern with tens of thousands of triangles is unrealistic. Our approach is to approximate the mesh model by a set of continuous triangle strips with no internal vertices. Initially, we subdivide our mesh into parts corresponding to the features of the model. [...]

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